Insomnia or sleeplessness is difficult to fall asleep or staying awake which results in day time drowsiness and difficulty concentrating. Insomnia can vary from person to person. People who experience sleeplessness have their thoughts racing when they lie on bed and find it difficult to shut down the thoughts to fall asleep. While others can fall asleep quickly but wake up in the middle of night and find it difficult to sleep back again.
Acute Insomnia happens for a brief period of time and resolves without treatment. Chronic Insomnia is when disturbed sleep happens frequently for long period of time. It can be due to change in work patterns, environment or other medical disorders. Insomnia is common in people with neurological disorders and in older adults.
It is a sleep disorder in which persons breathing is repeatedly interrupted for a short while and resumes which result in abrupt awakenings from the sleep. If the interruption is due to blockage of airway, it is called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Loud snoring is observed in people with OSA due to blockage of airways. Central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs when brain fails to signal muscles to breathe. Shortness of breath followed by sudden awakening from the sleep is seen in CSA.
Periodic Leg movement during sleep:
This is known as Periodic Limb movement disorder commonly affects legs. Repetitive movement of leg wake the patient up making them sleep deprived.
Narcolepsy is a type of sleep disorder that cannot regulate between sleep and wake cycles. It is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime drowsiness, sudden attack of sleep during the activity, sleep paralysis (unable to move or speak when falling asleep or waking up), hallucinations and weakening of muscles in reaction to emotions like joy or surprise.
It is a disorder and involves more than just walking in sleep. They also perform complex behaviours while asleep such as sitting up in bed, walking around the house, sleep talking, urinating in living spaces. Most common in children and require treatment if they frequently occur.